As the vibrant colors of summer fade into the warm hues of autumn, beekeepers prepare for one last important task: feeding their precious bees. The changing seasons bring new challenges for honeybee colonies, and it’s crucial to provide them with the sustenance they need to survive the winter months. In this article, we’ll explore why fall feeding is essential and what to feed bees as they prepare for the cold season.

The Importance of Fall Feeding:

Fall is a transitional season for bees, as they shift their focus from foraging for nectar and pollen to hunkering down in their hives for the winter. During this time, the availability of natural forage diminishes, and the bees’ nutritional needs change. Fall feeding serves several vital purposes:

Winter Survival: Bees need sufficient food reserves to maintain their hive’s temperature and provide sustenance during the winter when foraging becomes difficult or impossible.

Colony Growth: A well-fed colony in the fall is more likely to thrive and build up a strong population for the next spring’s foraging season.

Health Maintenance: Proper nutrition helps bees maintain their health, immunity, and ability to combat diseases and parasites.

What to Feed Bees in Fall:

Now that we understand the significance of fall feeding, let’s explore what to feed bees during this critical period:

Sugar Syrup:

Sugar syrup is a common and effective option for fall feeding. It provides bees with carbohydrates, which they store as honey for winter consumption.

Mix a 2:1 ratio of granulated sugar to water (by weight). For example, 4 pounds of sugar to 2 cups of water. This thicker syrup has a higher sugar concentration, making it suitable for fall.

Winter Patties or candy boards are solid sugar-based foods that bees can access throughout the winter.

You can purchase pre-made winter patties or make your own candy boards by mixing sugar and water to a thick consistency, then allowing it dry.

Honey Supers:

If you have honey supers that weren’t harvested, consider leaving them for the bees to access during the winter. Ensure they have enough honey to last them through the cold months.

When and How to Feed Bees:

Timing is crucial when it comes to fall feeding. In many regions, it’s best to start feeding in late summer or early fall, typically in August or September, to ensure that bees have enough time to store sufficient food before winter sets in. The exact timing may vary depending on your local climate and the specific needs of your colony.

Here’s a simple guide on how to feed bees in the fall:

Prepare your chosen feeding method (sugar syrup, fondant, or honey supers).

Place the feed inside the hive to prevent robbing by other bees or pests.

Ensure that the bees have easy access to the feed, and monitor their consumption.

Continue feeding until the bees stop taking the food, indicating that they have enough reserves for winter.

Beekeeping is a year-round commitment, and fall feeding is a crucial part of ensuring the well-being and survival of your honeybee colonies. As the days grow shorter and the temperatures drop, providing bees with the right nourishment is the final act of stewardship for the season. Remember that each hive is unique, and monitoring their food stores and needs is essential for a successful winter and a thriving colony in the following spring. So, get ready to lend a helping hand to your bees as they prepare for the cold months ahead, and enjoy the sweet rewards of a healthy, thriving hive next year.